Overactive Adrenal Glands

What are overactive adrenal glands?

Your body has 2 adrenal glands. They are found on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands make certain types of hormones. If they make too much of (overproduce) these hormones, they are called overactive.

What causes overactive adrenal glands?

Your adrenal glands may start to make too many hormones on their own for unknown reasons. They can also become too active if your pituitary gland makes too much of the hormone ACTH (adrenocorticotropin).

Some people who take high doses of steroid medicines for a long time will also show signs of excess adrenal hormone effect.

What are the symptoms of overactive adrenal glands?

Symptoms depend on which hormones are being overproduced:

  • Androgenic steroids (androgen hormones). These hormones include testosterone. Having too much of them can lead to strong male traits in both men and women. These may include a hairy face and body, baldness, acne, a deeper voice, and more muscle mass.
  • Cortisol. Too much cortisol can lead to Cushing's syndrome. This disorder can also be caused by taking high levels of similar steroid hormones. Signs of Cushing’s condition include fragile skin that bruises easily, and pink or purple stretch marks. Upper body obesity, increased fat around the neck, and thin arms and legs are also common.
  • Aldosterone. Too much aldosterone can cause high blood pressure. It can also cause low levels of potassium. That may result in weakness, muscle aches, spasms, and sometimes paralysis.

These symptoms may look like other health problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are overactive adrenal glands diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask about your medical history. You will also need a physical exam. Your provider may also see if you have any signs of Cushing's syndrome, a condition that can occur if your body makes too much cortisol hormone. People with this condition have symptoms that include easy bruising, muscle weakness, and red or purple stretch marks. Upper body obesity and thin arms and legs are also common.

Other tests that may help with a diagnosis include:

  • Blood and urine tests. These can measure hormone levels.
  • Imaging tests. These may include CT scan, ultrasound, or X-ray.

How are overactive adrenal glands treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and past health
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle certain medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment depends on what is causing the disease. You may need to have your adrenal glands removed. If external steroid use is the cause, you may need to slowly cut back or stop taking the steroid. You may also need to take medicine that blocks the production of certain hormones.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Tell your healthcare provider if your symptoms return or get worse. Also let your provider know if you have new symptoms.

Key points about overactive adrenal glands

  • Your 2 adrenal glands are found just above each kidney. They make certain types of hormones. If your adrenal glands make too much of these hormones, they are called overactive.
  • Symptoms depend on which hormones are being overproduced.
  • You may need to have blood and urine tests, and imaging tests such as a CT scan or ultrasound.
  • Treatment depends on the cause of the disease. It may include medicine or surgery.
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