Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)

What is increased intracranial pressure (ICP)?

A brain injury or some other health problem can cause growing pressure inside your skull. This dangerous condition is called increased intracranial pressure (ICP). It can lead to a headache. It can also further injure your brain or spinal cord.

This kind of headache is an emergency. It requires medical care right away. The sooner you get help, the more likely you are to recover.

What causes increased ICP?

Causes of increased ICP are:

  • Hydrocephalus, when you have too much cerebrospinal fluid. This is the fluid around your brain and spinal cord.
  • Bleeding into the brain
  • Swelling in the brain
  • Aneurysm
  • Blood pooling in some part of the brain
  • Brain or head injury
  • Brain tumor
  • Infections such as encephalitis or meningitis
  • High blood pressure
  • Stroke


What are the symptoms of increased ICP?

These are the most common symptoms of increased ICP:

  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • High blood pressure
  • Shallow breathing
  • Vomiting
  • Changes in your behavior
  • Weakness or problems with moving or talking
  • Lack of energy or sleepiness

These symptoms may look like other health problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is increased ICP diagnosed?

To diagnose increased ICP, your healthcare provider will ask about your past health and do a physical exam. You may also need:

  • A nervous system exam. This is to test your senses, balance, and mental status. Sometimes your healthcare provider can tell if pressure is high by looking into your eye with an ophthalmoscope.
  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). This test measures the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid.


  • CT scan. This test makes a series of detailed X-ray images of the head and brain.
  • MRI. This test uses a large magnet and a computer to detect small changes in brain tissue content. It can show more detail than X-rays or a CT scan.

How is increased ICP treated?

Increased ICP is an emergency. Treatment might include:

  • Taking medicine to reduce swelling
  • Draining extra cerebrospinal fluid or blood around the brain
  • Removing part of the skull (craniotomy) to ease swelling (though this is rare)

You may also be treated for the underlying cause of your increased ICP, such as an infection, high blood pressure, tumor, or stroke.

What are possible complications of increased ICP?

Increased ICP has serious complications, such as:

  • Seizures
  • Stroke
  • Neurological damage
  • Death

Can increased ICP be prevented?

You can lower your risk of certain health problems that may lead to increased ICP, such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • Stroke
  • Infection
  • Head injury
You can lower your risk for a head injury by always wearing a helmet when participating in contact sports or riding a bike or motorcycle. Also always wear a seatbelt.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Call your healthcare provider or 911 if you think you may be having symptoms of increased ICP, such as:

  • Severe headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Feeling less alert than usual
  • Vomiting
  • Changes in your behavior
  • Weakness or problems with moving or talking
  • Lack of energy or sleepiness
  • Seizure

Key points about increased ICP

  • Increased ICP is a dangerous condition.
  • It is an emergency. It requires medical care right away.
  • Increased ICP can result from bleeding in the brain, a tumor, stroke, aneurysm, high blood pressure, or brain infection.
  • Treatment focuses on lowering increased intracranial pressure around the brain.
  • Increased ICP has serious complications including death.


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