Hypospadias occurs when the urethral opening is below the tip of the bulbous end of the penis (glans). The opening can be on the glans along the shaft, at the pouch that holds the testicles (scrotum) or between the scrotum and the anus (perineum). The farther the urethral opening is from the tip, the more the penis will be curved.
Symptoms of hypospadias include:
- Downward spray of the urine stream
- Hooded appearance of the penis
- Undescended testicles
- Inguinal hernias (in the groin)
- Upper urinary tract anomalies
- Backflow of urine from the ureter to the bladder
Diagnosing hypospadias usually includes a physical examination or a prenatal ultrasound.
Surgery is the recommended treatment for hypospadias. The goal of surgery for hypospadias is to reposition the urethral opening and straighten the shaft of penis. Surgery is performed ideally between three and 18 months, although it can be done at any age, even in adulthood. If it is done on an infant, circumcision should be delayed, as the foreskin tissue might be needed. Learn more about treatments for hypospadias at Cedars-Sinai Urology Academic Practice.