Electrophysiology Treatments Using Electrical Devices
Pacing and rhythm-control devices, including pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are used to treat arrhythmias and other disturbances of the heart's rhythm. These devices send and receive electrical signals to and from the heart to regulate heartbeat and are lifesaving in many situations.
Our team of heart rhythm doctors specializes in implanting pacemakers, ICDs and biventricular pacemakers-ICDs, and providing follow-up and optimization of those patients with previously implanted devices. A dedicated pacemaker and defibrillator clinic provides clinical follow-up to those patients with pacemakers, ICDs and biventricular pacemakers (CRT devices). Routine and extended interrogations, optimization and reprogramming are performed on-site in our device clinic, directed by our heart rhythm specialists.
These devices are used to treat slow heart rhythms (bradycardia). Permanent pacemakers are placed inside the chest through a major vein and are intended to remain in the body over a long period.
The pacemaker is implanted during a procedure in which the patient is under local anesthesia. A vein in the upper chest is opened so the pacemaker wires can be advanced into the heart. The wire must touch the heart to carry electrical signals back and forth between the heart and the pacemaker. The wire is then attached to the pacemaker, which is put in a pouch under the skin.
An ICD is an electronic device designed to stop rapid, life-threatening heart rhythms. If the heart has stopped (cardiac arrest) or is experiencing rapid, abnormal rhythms (life-threatening arrhythmias) that cannot be controlled by drugs or other approaches, this device may be used. It may also be used in patients with very weak heart muscle where there is an increased risk of developing dangerous heart rhythms.
The defibrillator uses two approaches to stop rapid, abnormal heart rhythms. The device can stimulate the heart to beat faster than the abnormal rate, which is called overdrive pacing, or it can deliver one or more electrical impulses directly to the heart to stop the rhythm.
The defibrillator is placed in a pocket under the skin of the chest. The device consists of leads and a pulse generator. The leads monitor the heart rhythm and deliver the energy for pacing, cardioversion and/or defibrillation. The generator contains the battery and a tiny computer that processes information to determine the heart's rhythm.
There are three types of ICDs: single, dual chamber and biventricular devices.
- In a single-chamber ICD, a lead is attached to the right ventricle.
- In a dual-chamber ICD, leads are attached to the right atrium and the right ventricle.
- In a biventricular ICD, leads are attached in the right atrium, the right ventricle and the left ventricle. The biventricular ICD is for patients who have had heart failure to provide cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an innovative approach for patients with congestive heart failure. Building on the technology for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter devices, CRT uses a specialized pacemaker to recoordinate the action of the right and left ventricles.
This differs from typical pacemakers, which pace only the right ventricle. CRT seeks to coordinate the heart's contractions and to improve pumping ability and overall heart function.