Browse our Health Library to learn about treatments, conditions, and how Cedars-Sinai can support your healthcare needs.
Exstrophy of the bladder is when a baby’s bladder has grown inside out and is sticking through the wall of the belly (abdomen). Epispadias is a problem often seen with exstrophy of the bladder.
A hydrocele a buildup of fluid in the thin pouch (tunica vaginalis) that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment within the first year.
Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.
Megaureter is a ureter that is much wider than normal. A ureter that is wider than 10 mm (3/8 inch) is a megaureter. A megaureter may not drain urine normally. This can lead to infections and kidney damage.
A micropenis is a penis that is smaller than normal. A penis length of less than 1.9 cm (0.75 inches) is considered micropenis.
Neurogenic bladder means the bladder doesn’t work normally because of nerve damage. It causes a child to have problems with holding or releasing urine.
Phimosis and paraphimosis are problems with the foreskin of the penis. Phimosis is when a foreskin can’t be pulled down (retracted) from the tip of the penis. Paraphimosis is when the foreskin is retracted but can’t move back up.
Posterior urethral valves are a problem with the urethra in a boy. The valves partly block urine flow because not enough urine can get through them to leave the body. This can harm the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys.
A child with prune belly syndrome often can't completely empty his or her bladder. This can cause serious bladder, ureter, and kidney problems.
Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.
In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as ...
A urinary tract infection is inflammation of part of the system that takes urine out of the body. It’s caused by bacteria.
A ureterocele is when part of a ureter right near the bladder becomes larger and bulges. This happens because the ureter’s opening into the bladder is too small and blocks urine flow.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a condition where urine in the bladder flows in the wrong direction. It goes up into the tubes (ureters) that lead to the kidneys.
Taking one or a mix of painkiller medicines daily over a long time may cause chronic kidney problems. This is called analgesic nephropathy. Painkillers that combine 2 or more medicines (such as, aspirin and acetaminophen together) with ...
When the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, the bladder may drop or sag into the vagina. This disorder in women is called cystocele.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. It can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder. The bladder can’t hold as much urine as it did in the past. It is a chronic disorder.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence means you can’t get an erection. It can also mean you are dissatisfied with the size or hardness of your erections, or how long your erections last.
Lichen sclerosus is a long-term skin condition. It causes the skin to become thin, white, and wrinkly. Lichen sclerosus is most common in women who have gone through menopause. It can also happen in men and children, and women who have ...
Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system. It makes a person unable to have children. It can affect a man, a woman, or both. Male infertility means that a man has a problem with his reproductive system. It means you cannot ...
The muscles and nerves of the urinary system work together to hold and release urine at the right time. Nerves carry messages between the bladder and the spinal cord and brain. The messages tell the muscles of the bladder to either ...
Peyronie disease causes hard, flat plaque to form under the skin on the tissue of the penis. The plaque often starts as an inflammation that may develop into scar tissue. It can cause pain and a sharp curve in the penis during erections.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infections in any part of the urinary tract. They are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to UTIs.
Urinary incontinence (UI) is the loss of urine control. You may not being able to hold your urine until you can reach a restroom. It may be a short-term problem caused by another health issue. Or it may be a long-term problem that you’ll...