Browse our Health Library to learn about treatments, conditions, and how Cedars-Sinai can support your healthcare needs.
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is when the spinal cord is damaged from an accident or other situation. An SCI may be a bruise (contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (transection) in the spinal cord.
Anencephaly is a birth defect that affects the brain and skull bones. With this condition, the brain is not fully formed. It often lacks part or all of the cerebrum.
Astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in children. It is usually low grade, which means slow-growing.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is an inherited (genetic) disorder of the muscles. It is called a neuromuscular disease. There are several types. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a rare type.
An abscess is a pocket of infection. In the brain, an abscess may be in one or more areas. This condition may cause problems with how the brain and spinal cord function. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that needs to be ...
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.
Burners and stingers syndrome is a type of sports injury. It is a pain in the shoulder or neck that causes a burning or stinging feeling down an arm to the hand.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a lifelong condition that affects how the brain and muscles communicate. CP affects body movement, muscle control, coordination, reflexes, posture, and balance.
A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening ...
Craniopharyngioma is a benign brain tumor this is found near the pituitary gland.
Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic condition that weakens your child's muscles. It appears in young boys, usually between ages 2 and 5.
EDMD is a rare inherited muscle disease. It causes weakness in your child’s shoulders, upper arms, and calves. The disease also causes stiff joints that can’t move well.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This leads to changes in a child's nervous system that can include confusion, changes in alertness, and seizures.
Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.
FSHD is a rare genetic muscle disease that affects the muscles of your child’s face, shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a short-term but often life-threatening disorder that affects the nerves in the body. GBS can cause muscle weakness, pain, and short-term (temporary) paralysis of the facial, chest, and leg muscles.
A head injury can be as mild as a bump, bruise (contusion), or cut on the head. Or it can be a concussion, a deep cut or open wound, broken skull bones, internal bleeding, or damage to the brain. Head injuries are one of the most common ...
A headache is pain or discomfort in one or more areas of the head or face. Headaches can happen once in a while. Or they may happen often.
A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. ...
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles in the brain. The ventricles are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebral spinal fluid.
Meningitis is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection that moves into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).
Microcephaly is a condition where a baby's head is much smaller than normal. It is most often present at birth (congenital). Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and an intellectual disability. Some children with small...
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder that causes weakness in muscles around the body. This happens because antibodies destroy some of the places where nerves and muscles meet. It mostly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms, and legs.
Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in ...
Neurocutaneous syndromes are disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and bones. The diseases are lifelong conditions that can cause tumors to grow in these areas. They can also cause other problems such as hearing ...
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a softening of white brain tissue near the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled chambers in the brain.
Reye syndrome is a rare but very serious illness that causes brain swelling and liver damage. It can also affect all of the body’s organs.
Spina bifida is a birth defect that causes problems with the spine, spinal cord, and the surrounding nerves.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disease of the nerves and muscles caused by certain genes. It causes muscle wasting and weakness.