Browse our Health Library to learn about treatments, conditions, and how Cedars-Sinai can support your healthcare needs.
Anencephaly is a birth defect that affects the brain and skull bones. With this condition, the brain is not fully formed. It often lacks part or all of the cerebrum.
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is when the spinal cord is damaged from an accident or other situation. An SCI may be a bruise (contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (transection) in the spinal cord.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is an inherited (genetic) disorder of the muscles. It is called a neuromuscular disease. There are several types. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a rare type.
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.
Burners and stingers syndrome is a type of sports injury. It is a pain in the shoulder or neck that causes a burning or stinging feeling down an arm to the hand.
A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening ...
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a lifelong condition that affects how the brain and muscles communicate. CP affects body movement, muscle control, coordination, reflexes, posture, and balance.
Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.
Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This leads to changes in a child's nervous system that can include confusion, changes in alertness, and seizures.
A headache is pain or discomfort in one or more areas of the head or face. Headaches can happen once in a while. Or they may happen often.
A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. ...
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles in the brain. The ventricles are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebral spinal fluid.
Meningitis is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection that moves into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder that causes weakness in muscles around the body. This happens because antibodies destroy some of the places where nerves and muscles meet. It mostly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms, and legs.
Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in ...
Reye syndrome is a rare but very serious illness that causes brain swelling and liver damage. It can also affect all of the body’s organs.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disease of the nerves and muscles caused by certain genes. It causes muscle wasting and weakness.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. It is often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease.
Ataxia means without coordination. People with ataxia lose muscle control in their arms and legs, which may lead to a lack of balance, coordination, and trouble walking. Ataxia may affect the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech, and...
Bell's palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over 48 hours. It is caused by a damaged facial nerve.
Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It is characterized by headache, stiff neck, and high fever.
A brain cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac in the brain. They are usually noncancerous.
A carotid dissection is a type of tear in one of your carotid arteries. It is a common cause of stroke in people under age 50.
The brachial plexus can be injured in many different ways — from pressure, stress, or being stretched too far. The nerves may also be cut or damaged by cancer or radiation treatment. Sometimes, brachial plexus injuries happen to babies ...
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a rare autoimmune disorder that attacks the myelin sheaths around nerve cells.
A cerebral abscess can cause your brain to swell, putting harmful pressure on brain tissue. An abscess can also keep blood from flowing to parts of your brain. If you develop this problem, you will need emergency treatment.
A mild concussion is called by a blow or jolt to the head.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a form of progressive dementia caused by degeneration of the tissues in the brain.
Distal muscular dystrophy (DD) is a group of rare diseases that affect your muscle. It usually appears between ages 40 and 60, but it can sometimes show up as early as the teen years.